Crystal Field Theory:
Valence bond theory is useful to visualize the bonding in complexes, but it fails to explain the nature of ligands, colour and electronic spectra, effect of temperature on magnetic moment and magnetic susceptibilities, why some complexes are high spin and others are low spin, stability of complexes.
To explain these properties Bethe and van Vleck proposed the crystal field theory.This theory was originally applied to ionic crystals and is therefore called crystal field theory.
This theory is based on the following assumptions:
- Ionic ligands such as Cl–,OH–,CN– are regarded as negative point charges(or simply point charges) and the neutral ligands such as H20,NH3,Py are regarded as dipole(or simply dipoles) because these ligands are dipolar.If the ligand is neutral molecule like the negative end of the dipole is directed towards the metal ion.
- Metal-ligand bond is not covalent i.e. there is no overlapping of orbitals.Instead of bonding in complexes is purely electrostatic in nature.In complexes two types of electrostatic forces come into account,
(1)One is the attraction between metal cation and the negatively charged ligand or the negative end of the polar ligand(i.e. dipole)
(2)The second type of electrostatic interaction is the electrostatic repulsion between the lone pairs of electrons on the ligands and the electrons in the d-orbital of the metal cation and the repulsion between nuclei of metal cation and the ligands but to a small extent.
- Another repulsion also come into account that occurs among the ligands.
- the five d-orbital in a free metal ion are degenerate(i.e.have same energy).When a complex is formed, the electrostatic field of ligands destroy the degeneracy of these d-orbitals i.e. these orbitals now have same energies.
- The orbital lying in the direction of the lidands are raised in energy more than those lying away from the ligands because of the repulsion between the d-electrons and the ligands.
- In order to understand CFT, it is necessary to know the geometry and orientation of the five d-orbitals.