## Thermodynamic process:

It is the path or operation by which a system changes from one state to another state.

### 1. Isothermal process:

The temperature of the system remains constant during each step.
T = constant => dT = 0

#### Details:

• For such change system should be contained in a perfectly conducting container.
• Perfect isothermal change is impossible but when a change is carried out very slowly approximate isothermal change occurs.
• It follows Boyle’s law.
• Work done in the isothermal process is graphically given by the area under the P-V curve.
• ∆H = nCp∆T  and  ∆H = nCv∆T
In isothermal process ∆T = 0
=> ∆H = 0 and ∆E = 0
• Specific change at constant T is infinitely great in the isothermal process.

There is no heat exchange between the system and surroundings.
q = constant
=> dq = 0
Perfectly adiabatic change is impossible but when a process is carried out very rapidly fairly

### 3. Isobaric process:

It is the system in which pressure of the system remains constant during each step.
P = constant , dp = 0

### 4. Polytropic process:

In this process heat capacity of the body remains constant.
Cp = constant  and  Cv = constant

=> dCp = 0  and  dC = 0

### 5. Quasistatic process:

The process in which the deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimal and all the states through which the system passes can be considered as equilibrium states.

### 6. Isochoric process :

When there is no change in the volume of the system during various operations the change is said to be isochoric.
V = constant  => dv = 0
For example, the combustion of a substance in a bomb calorimeter is an isochoric process.

### 7. Cyclic process:

The process which brings back a system to its original state after a series of changes is called acyclic process.
As the E and H depend only on their states, E and H are constant.
So, dE = 0 and  dH = 0

### This Post Has One Comment

1. Emma

hi